Some infants with diarrhoea appear very ill and have bacteria circulating in their blood. This is called septicaemia. Septicaemia should be suspected if the child has a high temperature (pyrexia) or appears a lot sicker that you would expect for the degree of dehydration or does not improve after the dehydration is corrected. Septicaemia is commoner in infants below 3 months, in malnourished children and in children with dysentery. Associated HIV infection makes septicaemia more likely, more serious and more dangerous.