- Severe, recurrent or chronic pneumonia caused by bacteria that also cause pneumonia in children who do not have HIV infection, e.g. Streptococcal pneumonia (Pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae B
- Pneumocystis pneumonia
- Viral pneumonia and bronchiolitis
- Bacterial ear infections (otitis media), bronchitis and sinusitis
- Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP)
- Chronic lung disease especially bronchiectasis
Pneumocystis pneumonia and lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis are seen very rarely in HIV-negative children.