Pulmonary TB due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the commonest form of TB in both HIV-infected and non-infected children. However, tuberculosis of other organs (extra-pulmonary TB) is far more common in children who are infected with HIV.
A combination of HIV and TB infection leads to rapid immunosuppression with progression of both diseases. As a result, TB is more severe in children with HIV infection.
TB in HIV-infected children usually responds well to treatment. However, multiple drug resistant TB is becoming a problem with HIV-infected children. It is the result of inadequate or incomplete treatment.
Infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is rare in children with AIDS.
See unit 8 for details on tuberculosis.