The most common complications of primary tuberculous infection in children are:
- Pulmonary spread (tuberculous pneumonia)
- Airway compression by hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes
- Pleural effusion
- Tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes
- Tuberculous meningitis
- Miliary tuberculosis
Fifty percent of children with miliary TB are under 2 years of age and 80% are under 5 years. Thirty percent of these children will also have meningeal involvement.