AIDS is becoming a much more common cause of death both in children and adults. Many of these children will eventually die of other infections such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, septicaemia and tuberculosis. Even if a child is not HIV-infected, death of one or both parents will increase their risk of dying under the age of 5 years. Therefore, the AIDS epidemic is expected to increase the under-5 mortality rate, and especially the infant mortality rate, in South Africa and many other developing countries.
The spread of AIDS will increase the under-5 mortality rate in South Africa.