Stage 4 HIV infection is recognised by:
- Severe failure to thrive or weight loss with a weight less than 60% of that expected for age
- Oesophageal candidiasis
- Pneumocystis pneumonia
- Disseminated tuberculosis or extrapulmonary tuberculosis
- HIV encephalopathy
- Many other severe opportunistic infections
The main feature of stage 4 HIV infection is severe opportunistic infection such as Pneumocystis pneumonia. Unlike adults, children with HIV infection rarely present with malignancies.
A detailed description of the 4 stages of HIV infection are given at the end of this unit.