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The history and examination
What are the steps in the general examination of a child?
The first meeting
Why is the introduction important?
How should you address a child?
Why is it important to listen to mothers?
Why is it important to keep the language simple?
The review of any referral information
What is the value of a referral letter?
What is the value of the Road-to-Health Card?
What basic information is needed?
Why are the age and gender important?
How should the child’s size be recorded?
How should you measure the child’s temperature?
How do you start taking a history?
Why is it important to obtain a good history?
Who should give the history?
What are the main parts of the history?
What is important to ask about in the present history?
What is important in the past history?
What is needed in the immunisation history?
Why may the social (home, family, school, economic) history be important?
What question in the social history should not be forgotten?
What special questions should be asked?
When can an interpreter help in taking a history?
Why is confidentiality important in history taking?
What can be learned by observing the mother and child during history taking?
The physical examination
What are the steps in the physical examination?
In what order should the steps of the examination be done?
What are the components of each step of the physical examination?
What is the most important component of the examination?
Where should the examination be done?
Should the child be undressed for the examination?
What is the best approach to the general and regional inspection?
How are the body systems examined?
What are important danger signs?
What are the early signs of dehydration?
What special examination may be needed?
What are the 10 common errors in the general examination of a child?
What special investigations are usually needed?
What additional investigations may be needed?
What is the assessment?
What is a problem list?
How do you make a diagnosis?
A plan of action
What is a plan of action?
Writing good clinical notes
What is the importance of good clinical notes?
How detailed should your notes be?
How should the notes of the first visit be laid out?
How should progress notes be written?
Should notes always be made in the Road-to-Health Card?
What is immunity?
What is immunisation?
What are the advantages of immunisation?
What immunisations should be given to young children?
What is the expanded programme on immunisation
How are immunisations given?
Which vaccines are used in South Africa?
When should immunisations be given?
Why is it important to give immunisations at the recommended time?
What should be done if immunisations are missed or never started?
Why are immunisations opportunities often missed?
How should immunisations be recorded?
What should be done if the Road-to-Health Card is lost?
Should infants born to HIV-positive women be immunised?
Should infants with HIV infection be immunised?
Should malnourished infants be immunised?
Should small or sick newborn infants be immunised?
Should routine immunisations be given to a sick child?
Can immunisations be safely given to an allergic child?
When are immunisations contraindicated?
Is immunisation safe?
What is BCG?
How should BCG be stored and mixed?
When should BCG be given?
How is BCG given?
What are the side effects of BCG immunisation?
What are the contraindications to BCG immunisation?
Which polio vaccine is used?
How should polio vaccine be stored?
How is live polio vaccine given?
Should oral polio immunisation be given to a breastfeeding infant?
What are the contraindications to polio immunisation?
Immunisation against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (dpt)
What is DPT vaccine?
How should DPT vaccine be stored?
How is DPT vaccine given?
What are the side effects of DPT immunisation?
What are the possible serious reactions to pertussis immunisation?
When should pertussis vaccine not be given?
What is DT vaccine?
Why is pertussis vaccine not given after 18 months?
What measles vaccine is used?
How should measles vaccine be stored?
How is measles vaccine given?
When should measles immunisation be given?
What are the complications of measles immunisation?
What are the contraindications to measles immunisation?
What is MMR vaccine?
Immunisation against hepatitis b
What is hepatitis B ?
When and how is hepatitis B vaccine given?
What are the side effects of hepatitis B vaccine?
What is the management of an infant born to a mother who is infected with hepatitis B ?
Immunisation against haemophilus influenzae
What is Haemophilus influenzae?
What is Hib vaccine?
How is Hib vaccine stored?
When and how is Hib vaccine given?
Which other immunisations are available?
Why is a booster dose of vaccine given?
Why are some immunisations given on the left and others on the right side of the body?
What equipment is used to give intramuscular immunisations?
What is ‘herd immunity’?
Which infectious diseases in children are notifiable?
What are mass immunisation campaigns?
What is important about storing and handling vaccines?
What is ‘the cold chain’?
What is the correct use of a vaccine fridge?
What is a cool box?
What is an opened multidose vial policy?
Growth and development
What is growth?
Measuring body size
How is body size determined in children?
How is weight measured?
How are height and length measured?
How should head circumference be measured?
How often should the size of children be measured?
How is a child’s size used to assess growth?
The importance of growth monitoring
What is growth monitoring?
What is the value of weight in growth monitoring?
What is the value of measuring height and head circumference?
Can an infant’s growth be determined at a single clinic visit?