The neurodevelopment of children with HIV infection is often retarded. They may even lose developmental milestones that have earlier been achieved. Slow development may be due to chronic illness, hospitalisation, lack of stimulation at home or depression. However, HIV may infect the brain causing an encephalopathy. Children with HIV infection are also at increased risk of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis.
Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon opportunistic infection in children.