What are the most common complications of primary tuberculosis in children?

The most common complications of primary tuberculous infection in children are:

  • Pulmonary spread (tuberculous pneumonia)
  • Airway compression by hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes
  • Pleural effusion
  • Tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes
  • Tuberculous meningitis
  • Miliary tuberculosis

Fifty percent of children with miliary TB are under 2 years of age and 80% are under 5 years. Thirty percent of these children will also have meningeal involvement.

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