- Vitamin A deficiency
- Vitamin B group deficiencies (e.g. pellagra)
- Vitamin C deficiency (scurvy)
- Vitamin D deficiency (rickets)
- Vitamin K deficiency (haemorrhagic disease in newborn infants)
In South Africa maize meal is now fortified with folic acid. Many bakeries also fortify their wheat flour used for bread with folic acid. It is planned to fortify both maize flour and bread with folate, vitamin A and vitamin B complex.